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How spontaneous and induced mutation occurs?

How spontaneous and induced mutation occurs?

Spontaneous mutations can occur because of replication errors or as a consequence of lesions introduced into DNA during normal cell growth. Induced mutations arise after treatment of the organism with an exogenous mutagen being physical or chemical agent increasing the frequency of mutations.

What are some common causes of mutations?

A mutation is a change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is copied or as the result of environmental factors such as UV light and cigarette smoke. Mutations can occur during DNA replication if errors are made and not corrected in time.

What is the spontaneous mutation?

A ‘naturally’ occurring mutation in the absence of a mutagen that would otherwise be a known factor for inducing a particular mutation.

What can induce mutations?

Mutations can be induced by several methods. The three general approaches used to generate mutations are radiation, chemical and transposon insertion.

What is the difference between a spontaneous and an induced mutation?

Spontaneous mutations are the type of heritable changes in the structure of DNA, occurring due to natural factors. Induced mutations occur due to the incorporation of base analogs, base mispairing, and base damage produced due to mutagens.

What is an example of an induced mutation?

Induced mutations are alterations in the gene after it has come in contact with mutagens and environmental causes. Alkylating agents (e.g., N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). These agents can mutate both replicating and non-replicating DNA.

Can stress cause genetic mutation?

It has been shown that certain molecular mechanisms can lead to increased mutation rates when the organism finds itself in a stressful environment. While this may be a correlated response to other functions, it could also be an adaptive mechanism, raising mutation rates only when it is most advantageous.

What is the difference between spontaneous and induced mutation?

What causes a spontaneous mutation?

Mutations arise spontaneously at low frequency owing to the chemical instability of purine and pyrimidine bases and to errors during DNA replication. Natural exposure of an organism to certain environmental factors, such as ultraviolet light and chemical carcinogens (e.g., aflatoxin B1), also can cause mutations.

What are the causes of spontaneous mutations in DNA?

Spontaneous mutations are heritable, random changes to the base sequence in the DNA that result from natural phenomena. These changes could result from errors made and not corrected by DNA polymerase during replication or from physical or chemical agents in the environment.

Which is an example of an induced mutation?

Spontaneous and induced mutations. Deamination • In addition to its spontaneous occurrence, deamination can be induced by some chemicals. • E.g.: nitrous acid deaminates cytosine, creating uracil, which in the next round of replication pairs with adenine producing a CG:TA transition mutation.

How are base substitutions different from spontaneous mutations?

Base substitutions can be transition mutations in which a purine base is substituted by another purine base or transversion mutations, which substitute purines by pyrimidines and vice versa. Also, frameshift mutations arise due to replication errors. Also, deletions account for a notable fraction of spontaneous mutations.

Why do mutations occur at a low frequency?

Mutations arise spontaneously at low frequency owing to the chemical instability of purine and pyrimidine bases and to errors during DNA replication. Another cause of spontaneous mutations is copying errors during DNA replication.