What causes staghorn calculus?
Staghorn calculi are most frequently composed of mixtures of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium carbonate apatite; they are strongly associated with UTIs caused by organisms that produce the enzyme urease, which promotes the generation of ammonia and hydroxide from urea.
Are staghorn calculus kidney stones?
Although kidney stones are commoner in men, staghorn stones are less often reported in men compared to women and they are usually unilateral [4–8]. Staghorn stones are infection stones in 49–68% of cases and, therefore, the term staghorn traditionally referred to struvite stone [9,10].
What is a staghorn calculus in medical terms?
Medical Definition of staghorn calculus : a large renal calculus with multiple irregular branches.
What are the symptoms of a staghorn kidney stone?
Symptoms may include flank pain classic for renal colic, fever, urinary symptoms (eg, frequency, dysuria), and hematuria (either gross or microscopic). However, struvite stones rarely manifest as a solitary ureteral stone with acute renal colic in the absence of prior intervention.
How do you treat staghorn calculus?
Generally, the gold standard treatment for staghorn stones is surgical with a view to achieve stone-free collecting system and preserve renal function. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy should be the recommended first-line treatment for staghorn stones.
Are staghorn calculi painful?
The majority of staghorn calculi are symptomatic, presenting with fever, hematuria, flank pain and potentially septicemia and abscess formation.
Can you live with a staghorn kidney stone?
Recommendations. A patient with a staghorn stone should be treated. If a staghorn stone is not treated, then renal deterioration occurs in at least 1 out of 4 patients. Over time, an untreated staghorn calculus is likely to destroy the kidney and/or cause life-threatening infections (sepsis).
What is the most common cause of staghorn renal calculi?
Epidemiology. Staghorn calculi are the result of recurrent infection and are thus more commonly encountered in women 6, those with renal tract anomalies, reflux, spinal cord injuries, neurogenic bladder or ileal ureteral diversion.
How do you remove staghorn calculi?
Complete removal of staghorn calculi should remain the goal in patients whose comorbidities do not preclude treatment. Treatment options for staghorn calculi include PCNL, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), ureteroscopy, or a combination of two or more of these treatments.
Do staghorn calculi cause pain?