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What medications are used to treat tumor lysis syndrome that affects chemotherapeutic agents?

What medications are used to treat tumor lysis syndrome that affects chemotherapeutic agents?

Medication Summary Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, reduces the conversion of nucleic acid byproducts to uric acid, in this way preventing urate nephropathy and subsequent oliguric renal failure.

Is tumor lysis syndrome a good sign?

The overall risk of developing TLS is low. However, when people do develop it, it can cause serious complications, including death. If you’re due to start cancer treatment, ask about your TLS risk factors and whether your doctor recommends any preventive treatment.

Is tumor lysis syndrome fatal?

Because tumor lysis syndrome is potentially lethal, the main principles of management are (1) identification of high-risk patients with initiation of preventive therapy and (2) early recognition of metabolic and renal complications and the prompt administration of supportive care, including hemodialysis.

What happens in tumor lysis syndrome?

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a condition that occurs when a large number of cancer cells die within a short period, releasing their contents in to the blood.

How do you test for tumor lysis syndrome?

Tumour lysis syndrome is usually diagnosed by:

  1. complete blood count (CBC)
  2. blood chemistry and uric acid levels in the blood.
  3. urinalysis.

How do I monitor TLS?

Urine output assessment and serum electrolyte screening are the keys to monitoring those at risk for TLS (Larson & Pui, 2012b). Patients at high risk for developing TLS should be assessed for laboratory and clinical signs of the condition every 4 to 6 hours after initiation of chemotherapy.

What is spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome?

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapy. It usually occurs in rapidly proliferating hematological malignancies. TLS is deemed spontaneous (STLS) when it occurs prior to any cytotoxic or definite treatment. STLS is extremely rare in solid tumors.

What should I do if I have tumor lysis syndrome?

Patients at high risk of TLS undergo bloodwork and clinical monitoring before and during therapy to ensure early diagnosis if it develops. Treatment is similar to the preventive measures, including intravenous fluids, allopurinol, and especially rasburicase. Patients may require admission to the intensive care unit.

How often should rasburicase be used for tumor lysis syndrome?

Most patients receive two days of therapy, but just one treatment is effective for some. Patients with a large tumor burden may need longer therapy (up to seven days) or twice-daily treatment. If you care for a patient taking rasburicase, pay special attention when sending lab specimens for uric acid analysis.

Can a tumor lysis syndrome occur after irradiation?

Spontaneous cases involving both solid and hematologic tumors have also been reported. Rarely, TLS occurs following treatment with irradiation, corticosteroids, hormonal therapy, or biologic therapy. It is necessary to identify patients at risk for TLS early in order to initiate preventive measures.

When does tumor lysis syndrome ( TLS ) occur?

TLS can occur spontaneously (before cancer treatment) but is more common within a week of starting treatment. TLS is not limited to patients receiving traditional chemotherapy; it can also occur in patients receiving steroids, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy.